Urban Malaria Scheme

OBJECTIVES

In Malaria Control Programme, the main aim is the reduction of the disease to a tolerable level in which the human population can be protected form malaria transmission with the available means.

The main objectives of Urban Malaria Scheme (UMS) are:

a) To control malaria by reducing the vector population in the urban areas
b) Reduce morbidity and mortality through EDPT.

Anti-larval measures

Anopheles stephensi - domestic water breeder an important vector of Urban Malaria

Anti-larval measures

Anopheles stephensi - domestic water breeder an important vector of Urban Malaria

  • Container breeder
  • Piped water supply system
  • Overhead and storage tanks
  • Water storage at construction sites
  • Wells
  • Desert coolers

Aedes Aegypti - domestic habitat species

This species breeds in domestic and peri-domestic water collections in a variety of containers in association with

Anopheles stephensai. In outdoor, old tyres and drums are most preferred sites.

Culex quinquefasciatus - Pest mosquito

The breeds mainly in sullage lakes around houses under un-organized sectors, drains, septic tanks.

Control Strategies

The control measures recommended under UMS are as follows:

Source Reduction

Environmental methods for controlling most of the breeding include source reduction by filling ditches, areas, pits, low lying areas, streamlining, channelising, desilting, deweeding, trimming of drains, water disposal and sanitation, empty water container once in a week, etc.

Chemical Control

Recurrent anti-larval measures with approved larvicides to control the vector mosquitoes are recommended. The following larvicides are used under UMS

  • Temephos
  • Fenthion

Biological Control

Bilogical control of mosquito breeding through biological agents specially larvivorous fish and by larvicides.

Aerosol Space Spray

Space spraying of Pyrethrum extract(2%) in 50 houses in and around every malaria positive case to kill the infective mosquitoes.

Anti-parasitic measures

Anti-parasitic measures through passive agencies like hospitals, dispensaries, clinics and private practitioners to reduce the reservoir of infection, by early case detection and prompt treatment.

Organizational Set-up

The Urban Malaria Scheme is a centrally sponsored programme being implemented mainly by local administrative authorities/Municipalities under the active supervision of state health authorities. The scheme is implemented at the following levels:

  • Town level - Biologist is the incharge of the programme implementation
  • State level - Additional Director (Malaria & Filaria) or Joint Director (Malaria & Filaria) or Deputy Director (Malaria & Filaria) is the incharge of the scheme at state level and also supervise the scheme by offering technical and administrative guidelines for better execution of the scheme.
  • Central Level -  Director NVBDCP monitors the UMS at central level monitors the scheme and provides technical guidance for its implementation. The Director of NVBDCP supplies the approved items as per the norms directly to the UMS towns.